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Injecting Architecture Experience

April 28, 2008 Leave a comment

In order to function effectively, the software architect must not become detached from the other technical leadership. This includes the chief software engineer, the software systems engineering lead, and the development team leads. The approach that works best for communication of both the top level and subsystem level of the software architecture is to create a small software architecture team made up of the key technical individuals on the development team. The size of this team should usually be limited to no more than seven individuals. If the development is geographically distributed, then a weekly meeting via network-connected meeting software and teleconference can work well. If the travel budget permits, it is good to have the software architect and a few key individuals travel to the different sites occasionally for some of the meetings. This can be done in conjunction with periodic technical interchange meetings with the development teams.

The architecture team is composed of team members, not representatives. When the team meets, the team members should be representing the best interests of the system architecture, not the individual groups they may feel the need to represent. These team members should report to project management personnel, not to the software architect. This will allow the software

architect to focus on the technical aspects of the system and not on the management tasks, such as performance reviews and other personnel management activities. However, a large project may require a small group of people that report to the software architect to support such activities as preparation of the top-level architecture document or definition/negotiation of interfaces between the software subsystems or processes.

The architecture team should take ownership of the overall software architecture and design. In addition, they are responsible for defining the design and coding guidelines. The software architecture team should be the group of individuals that makes the key design and implementation decisions.

They are responsible for making the architecture and design as effective as possible, given project constraints. In addition, both requirements and design changes to the system should be approved by this team.

The architecture team is a working group that approves all design reviews, documents, deliveries, and makes sure the software delivery and the architecture defined for that delivery are consistent. Members of this team should be invited to all key reviews. In addition, they should participate in many of the peer reviews and inspections of the design artifacts and code. Many of the members of the software architecture team will be development leads, since these are usually the senior technical members of the development team. This will also facilitate acceptance of decisions made by the team among the development team members.

It is important this team be composed only of technical design and development leads that are responsible for the software architecture, not just individuals who are interested in or who may need to review the architecture. One exception to this rule is that a technical lead from the test team is sometimes a good addition to the architecture team to ensure the testability aspects have

been considered.

While project management support is important for the success of the software architecture team and managers should be used to facilitate the team activities, a manager should never lead the team nor should any managers be members of the team. These managers should not be making or guiding the technical decisions made by the software architecture team, other than to provide input on the budget and schedule aspects of architectural decisions. In order to facilitate communication, presentations should be scheduled for the sole purpose of communicating the latest architecture and related issues to the managers and other development team members. These presentations are effective communication and training sessions and will be effective in minimizing the number of requests to add interested individuals to the architecture team.

Skills and Background for the Architect

April 28, 2008 2 comments

A software architect should have most or all of the following skills, background, and attributes.

Extensive software design and development experience is required to create an effective overall design, and the software architect must understand and explain how this will map to the implementation. In order to do this, the software architect should have significant development experience. Technical leadership is key to making timely and effective decisions. The management and development leads need to be convinced the decisions being made by the software architect are good ones, based on current information. The software architect should be a recognized technical leader and, as a result, instill this confidence in the program managers, development managers, and development leads.

Team facilitation skills are essential. The software architect should be effective in leading both the architecture team and the development teams. The architecture team usually consists of individuals with strong technical backgrounds and who often have strong opinions. The architect should be able to handle the dynamics of this team as well as be the final decision maker when there are technical disagreements.

Communication skills are vital to the job of architect. The software architect should be able to handle hundreds of emails a day, provide clear direction to the architecture team and technical leadership, and make the architecture and related issues clearly understood by both technical and nontechnical stakeholders. The software architect should also be able to clearly communicate needs and concerns related to the architecture to these stakeholders.

The architect will spend a great deal of time building consensus among technical leaders and managers. This is often required in advance of technical meetings, so the meetings will run smoothly. However, the amount of consensus building should not increase to the extent that the project stops progressing. There is an appropriate time to make a decision and move on, preparing those on the opposing side in advance, if possible.

Technical skills of the software architect should be broad, deep and up to date. In addition, based on a wide knowledge of technology, the architect should have the ability to make technology selections that can facilitate development within the project schedule, budget, and developer skill set.

Technical leaders in the development organization that try to push their own favorite technology should be dealt with carefully by the architect. In addition, the architect must avoid the tendency to select one technology and apply it to all situations. Finally, the architect needs to keep up-to-date technical skills on new software design and development technologies and should always be

researching new techniques that are more effective. Development languages, modeling techniques, and platforms continue to evolve rapidly. The architect needs to assimilate the relevant aspects of these new technologies for their applicability to the system or systems.

One facet of the architect’s technical skill set is knowledge of component communication mechanisms. In order to select the correct implementation approaches and tools, the software architect should have experience with and knowledge of several mechanisms. Examples include remote procedure call (RPC), Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI), Common Object Request

Broker Architecture (CORBA), other standards-based communication protocols, directory services, web services, and relational as well as object-oriented

databases.

In addition, knowledge of the domain is also important. The software architect must be able to develop an architecture that meets the needs of the customers and end users of the system. In order to meet these needs, the approaches and techniques applied by the end users in performing their dayto-day tasks must be clearly understood by the architect. This can frequently be achieved by spending on-site time with existing or potential customers.

There is no substitute for actual hands-on experience, or at least discussions with and observations of end users of the system under design. Good architects tend to be quick learners and keen observers because of the need to quickly acquire new domain understanding.

Finally, the software architect must possess very good abstraction skills. This is critical to the definition of views that communicate the appropriate information. Many developers will not be good software architects, as they are not able to focus at the right level of abstraction and quickly become overwhelmed by the low-level aspects of the software design and implementation.

Relationship to Other Key Roles in Development Organization

April 28, 2008 Leave a comment

The following roles are usually found in large-scale software development. Each role has an associated relationship with the software architect. Note that no organization will necessarily have all these roles, nor will each role be assigned to separate individuals. Often in smaller organizations, two or more of the roles can be combined and assigned to one person. In addition, there will often be more overlap of individuals focused on architecture and those focused on development in smaller projects. On large projects, these kinds of overlap will occur less frequently. The relationships between the role of software architect and other roles in the organization are described below:

Role: project management

Description: This includes the top-level project manager, and the immediate staff associated with that role. This could include program planning, subcontract management, supplier management, software estimation, release management, and operations management.

Relationship to Software Architect: The program management must understand how the software architecture maps to internal development teams, subcontracted development teams, COTS tools, hardware, network architecture, and external organizations/entities with whom the software must interface. In addition, the architect will work with project management in the definition of release content as well as prioritization of features included or omitted from a release.

Role: development team managers

Description: These are the managers for each individual development team. These may be internal or subcontracted teams. These leads may also have a small staff with whom the software architect must communicate.

Relationship to Software Architect: These development team managers should clearly understand the interfaces they provide and consume with respect to other development teams and external entities. This includes the high-level technical aspects, such as COTS tools involved in the interface, as well as the complexity involved in the development or modification of each of these interfaces. In addition, the managers should understand the key interfaces that may be a potential performance problem. Finally, the software architect will need to assist the development team managers in the addition of features or reduction of functionality.

Role: system architect/chief engineer

Description: Many organizations have a top-level technical lead responsible for the overall system design and delivery. This is frequently the case when significant hardware components are to be delivered along with software. The responsibilities associated with this role often include technical leadership of the systems engineering, software development, hardware design, network (LAN andWAN) design, and even test organizations.

Relationship to Software Architect: The software architect must communicate the overall software design to the system architect. This includes interfaces between development teams, external interfaces, requirements-related issues, and dependencies from other organizations that may impact the software development. In addition, the software architect will work closely with the chief engineer to identify and resolve significant technical issues.

Role: chief software engineer

Description: In some organizations, a role of chief software engineer (CSE) is separate from the software architect. In smaller organizations, these roles may be merged. The role of the chief software engineer is usually tied more closely to the development process than the details of the software architecture. This means the CSE should not only play a key role in the definition of the process, but should ensure the process is followed throughout the development lifecycle. The CSE works closely with the technical lead and build manager for each release.

Relationship to Software Architect: The software architect and CSE work closely together not only to make sure the delivered software meets the requirements, but also to ensure that the interface and port definitions match those defined by the software architecture team. In addition, the CSE will consult the software architect on many process definition issues, especially those related to requirements, architecture definition, and design.

Role: hardware architect

Description: The hardware architect is responsible for the selection and configuration of the hardware on which the software must execute. This requires a careful analysis of several types of requirements. These include requirements related to performance, input/output, data storage, COTS products, software sizing, and the user interface.

Relationship to Software Architect: The software architect will provide detailed information on the low-level requirements the software will levy on the hardware. These estimates will often vary widely early in the architecture definition process and less widely as the architecture becomes well understood. The hardware architect will also communicate to the software architect the restrictions that are imposed by the hardware that will be used. Often the selection of hardware is mandated by the customer or prior installations of the system and the software architect must make sure the software architecture is defined within the constraints of this hardware. In addition, the software architect must participate in the hardware selection and the specification of configuration information, making sure all key requirements are considered.

Role: network architect

Description: The network architect is responsible for defining the LAN and WAN design and configuration. In addition, the network architect must make sure the installation of the network hardware is performed to meet the network design. This role is sometimes combined with the hardware architect, primarily because knowledge of the various hardware components and how these components are interconnected are closely related.

Relationship to Software Architect: As with the hardware architect, the software architect must communicate network requirements to the network architect and participate in the selection and configuration of the network. In addition, once the network configuration is defined, the network architect must communicate the constraints implied by the network back to the software architect.

Role: technical leads of each release

Description: One effective approach we have seen is to have a manager and technical lead work together to deliver each major release of the software. Each individual can then focus on what they do best, leaving the release management tasks to the manager and the technical issues to be worked out by the technical lead. This lead is responsible for technical aspects of the interfaces, defects, building, testing, and delivery of the software. These technical leads will often participate in the definition of and modifications to the software architecture.

Relationship to Software Architect: First, the software architect must deliver a set of architecture views to the technical lead that clearly communicates the system under development and test for that release. This will enable the technical lead to quickly detect and remedy issues with the software. In addition, the software architect should work with the technical lead to change representations in the architecture that do not accurately represent the software that was delivered.

Role: data architect

Description: The systems engineering leads are responsible for delivering the system requirements that have been allocated to software, to the development organization.

Relationship to Software Architect: The software architect must review these requirements to make sure they can be developed, given the project constraints, and provide feedback to the systems engineering leads when a mismatch occurs. In addition, the software architect must communicate the software architecture to the systems engineering leads to make sure the requirements have been correctly understood and translated into the architecture.

Role: software systems engineering lead

Description: Many development organizations create a software systems engineering (SSE) group that translates and maps the requirements from the higher-level systems group into lower-level requirements, which can be assigned to individual development teams. This often means that the higher-level ‘shall statements’ which are used at the top level must be translated into use

cases and other artifacts that more clearly communicate the requirements to the software development teams. In addition, the requirements associated with each interface may also be specified by this team.

Relationship to Software Architect: The software architect should participate in many of the use case and interface definition activities with the SSE team. The preliminary software architecture will often be provided to this organization, and the resulting activities of the SSE team will evolve the software architecture as the system is better understood.

Roles of the Software Architect

April 28, 2008 1 comment

This chapter will provide an understanding of the role of the software architect and how this role relates to other key roles on the development team. In addition, the skills required for the software architect, key approaches for leading the software architecture team, and traps and pitfalls associated with the software architect are discussed. In keeping with the philosophy of providing a practical guide, many of the detailed definitions and discussions are left to the recommended reading at the end of the chapter.

The importance of a good software architect should not be underestimated. There are plenty of examples of projects gone awry for lack of good leadership. Lack of someone filling the architect role is sometimes part of the story. Of course good architects can fail in a non-supportive environment. A poor architect that is out of touch, however, can quickly drive a project to ruin. The software architect should be instrumental in the development of a ‘shared vision’ for the software. What is a shared vision? At a basic level the development team must have an idea in their minds about what the final product will be, the effect the software will have, and the goals of the organization. The architecture will reflect and define a large part of the vision.

The shared vision is influenced by many factors, many of them nontechnical. However, it is in the technical aspects of the vision that the architect typically makes the largest contribution. The final architecture will necessarily balance the conflicting interests of the various stakeholders. The architect must always be prepared to communicate and interact with other team members about the overall vision. Defining and communicating this technical vision includes the following activities:

• Analysis of the problem domain

• Risk management

• Requirements management

• Interface design

• Technology roadmap management

• Determination of implementation approaches

• Definition of an architecture that meets the system requirements

• Definition of an architecture that meets goals of the organization

• Definition of an architecture that meets the project budget and schedule

• Oversight of the mapping from the architecture to the design and implementation

• Communication of the software architecture to technical and non-technical audiences

• Maintenance of the software architecture throughout the project lifecycle

Although the exact roles and responsibilities vary somewhat by project and organization, the following are typical:

Requirements tend to be a topic that consumes much of the attention of the software architect. This is because the architect is typically responsible for understanding and managing the non-functional system requirements such as maintainability, performance, testability, reusability, reliability, and availability.

In addition, the architect must often review and approve both the requirements provided by the system-level systems engineering organization and the designs produced by the development teams. The software architect participates in reviews of these development work products. Often the architect will work directly with customers, marketing, and support organizations as well on the formulation of requirements.

Technical risk assessment and management is another crucial role for the architect. The architect should use his or her experience to provide management and other stakeholders with information about the key technical risks of the proposed software. A risk reduction plan, either formal or informal, to address these risks is the responsibility of the architect. The architect needs to be capable of assessing the impact of requirements changes on the system as well as the risk of the proposed changes.

Analysis of the problem domain is an important role. This is especially true if the task is to create a product line, framework, or family of products. The architect needs to be able to dissect problems into component parts and structure solutions that can meet the needs of the organization.

Design of the overall software structure as well as critical components, interfaces, and policies is the direct responsibility of the architect. The software architect should also provide a set of design guidelines to the development team as well as input to the development of coding style guides. The software architect is the final authority on issues such as design/development style, interface negotiation and definition, and requirement modifications.

The software architect serves as a reviewer and approver of many different project deliverables. These including subsystem designs, interface definition documents, coding style guidelines, and system engineering work products. In addition to reviewing, the software architect also approves many of these documents. The software architect also reviews and approves software deliveries

and associated documentation. Examples of these associated documents should include test reports and updated design documents that accompany the delivery.

Mentoring of designers and developers is another key role. Since the software architect is an expert developer and designer it is critical to share this knowledge and experience with other team members. This can be done in a number of different ways, including developing and teaching classes, individual help sessions, and brown-bag seminars. Participating in design sessions, peer reviews, and inspections are additional mentoring techniques. An occasional programming session will also be beneficial.

Integration and test support is another important role of the software architect. This includes defect prioritization and assignment, resolution of defect issues, definition of test scenarios, and participation in test execution.

Implementation is a role that may be played by an architect on a small project. In addition, an architect may be involved in initial prototyping efforts to defer major risks. However, on large-scale projects there are simply too many highlevel issues for an architect to spend significant time in an implementation role. One caution for the architect on large-scale systems is to avoid getting

tied up in the implementation details to the point that the architecture suffers. In spite of the fact that software architects usually have a strong development background, the architect should not be personally responsible for code deliverables as this involvement may end up as a bottleneck for other developers.

Finally, team lead is another critical role played by the architect. The architect is part of the leadership team and needs to work with that team. In addition, in large projects an architect may have a supporting staff, or at a minimum an architecture team. The architect needs to lead these teams and keep them focused on addressing the most critical project risks.

The software architect is also a key liaison to project management, other technical leaders, system engineering, and developers. The architect will need to translate and interpret technical information for other team members as well as helping a team member find appropriate contacts.

These roles and responsibilities will be emphasized or de-emphasized as the project evolves. As the systems engineers begin requirements definition, the software architect will be focused on understanding the domain, preparation and review of the requirements. As requirements are becoming more defined, the focus will shift to staffing the senior technical team members, and process definition. During the development of the top-level architecture, the focus will shift to architecture definition.

As subsystem teams start design, the role of reviewer and approver will be the focus. As the software deliveries to the integration and test organization begin, the role of integration and test support may be the focus. In addition, the software architect must start the architecture definition tasks for the next increment of the software during the development of the current increment, or the architecture definition will not be complete when the next set of subsystem design activities begin.

Nutrisi untuk Hubungan Seksual yang Berkualitas

April 28, 2008 4 comments

Dr Morton Walker dalam buku Sexual Nutrition (Nutrisi Seksual), mengatakan bahwa dengan 9.000 kalori per gram, lemak adalah sumber konsentrasi energi tubuh yang besar.

Namun, panas tinggi yang digunakan saat memasak lemak dapat mengubah struktur kimia, menciptakan racun yang tidak dapat dimakan, dan akan mengganggu susunan hormon seksual.

Untuk itulah, dianjurkan pada setiap pasangan untuk mengurangi lemak dengan membatasi makan goreng-gorengan, daging yang dipanggang di atas arang (pan fried atau grilled), hot dog, alpukat, donat, kue-kue manis, dan potato chips.

Di negara-negara dunia ketiga, masalah seksualitas dan reproduksi ini hampir tidak dikenal. Sebab, pola makan penduduknya kebanyakan terdiri dari buah-buahan, sayuran, serta kacang dan padi-padian.

Sebagian besar ahli nutrisi percaya bahwa, dua sendok makan lemak sebenarnya sudah mencukupi kebutuhan harian minimal tubuh. Kombinasi padi-padian, kacang-kacangan, polong-polongan atau biji-bijian dengan sedikit protein hewani (produk susu, daging ayam, atau telur) akan dapat meningkatkan nutrisi.

Jadi, untuk menjaga kemampuan seks dan juga kualitas hubungan seks anda dan pasangan, sebaiknya segera kurangi konsumsi lemak dalam makanan sehari-hari mulai sekarang. Lakukanlah diet bila perlu, untuk menjaga kebugaran fisik anda berdua. Sebab, kesehatan dan kebugaran fisik adalah salah satu kunci kesuksesan dalam berhubungan seks.

Mengkonsumsi strawberry dan raspberry diyakini dapat meningkatlan gairah seksual, demikian dikatakan oleh seorang ahli nutrisi. Patrick Holford mengatakan kedua buah ini memiliki zat besi yang tinggi yang terkandung dalam bijinya.

Biji kedua buah ini berbeda dengan biji pada buah lain, karena biji dalam strawberry dan raspbery umumnya dimakan, sedangkan biji pada buah lain biasanya dibuang. Zat besi adalah nutrisi yang banyak mempengaruhi faktor seksual.

Mereka menghasilkan testosterone yang dibutuhkan dalam proses pembentukan sperma. Tubuh wanita akan lebih ceppat terangsang jika zat besi dalam tubuhnya berada dalam jumlah banyak. Kandungan zat besi ini memungkinkan pria untuk melakukan hubungan seks 3 kali dalam waktu 24 jam.

“Pesan saya sederhana saja, setiap kali anda melakukan hubungan seks atau anda ingin mempersiapkan diri anda dan pasangan untuk melakukan hubungan seksual, anda cukup memakan segenggam raspbery atau strawberry.”

“Dan bukan hanya kandungan zat besinya yang berguna bagi kebutuhan anda saat beraktivitas di ranjang. Mereka juga memproduksi anti-oxidant yang berguna melancarkan peredaran darah pada seluruh organ seksual. Mereka juga menghasilkan glycaemic yang dapat meningkatkan tenaga.”

Kelebihan nutrisi yang  diasup oleh seseorang dan disimpan dalam bentuk lemak dapat menyebabkan terjadinya gangguan fungsi seksual. Sebuah penelitian yang dilakukan di AS, menemukan bahwa orang-orang yang mengalami obesitas, dan lalu menguruskan tubuh akhirnya dapat menikmati kehidupan seksual yang lebih menyenangkan, selain juga membuat merasa lebih sehat. Laporan tentang penemuan ini diungkapkan di pertemuan rutin yang digelar Obesity Society, di Vancoouver, Kanada.

Dalam penelitian yang dilakukan oleh direktur Diet and Fitness Center di Durham, Martin Binks, diduga orang-orang yang mengalami obesitas secara signifikan rata-rata tinggi mengalami kualitas hubungan seksual buruk. Namun, “hanya sedikit yang diketahui tentang pengaruh pengurangan berat badan dalam masalah ini,’ ungkap peneliti tersebut.

Dalam studi yang mereka lalukan, Binks dan koleganya melakukan percobaan data kualitas seksual dari orang-orang yang menguruskan badannya. Percobaan tersebut dilakukan pada 161 wanita yang mengalami obesitas dan 26 pria yang juga mengalami obesitas. Data tersebut dikumpulkan tiap tiga bulan selama dua tahun. Untuk mengukur kualitas seksual dalam kehidupan, para peneliti menggunakan berbagai pertanyaan standar yang berjudul ‘Pengaruh Kegemukan Pada Kualitas Dalam Kehidupan.’

Diantara faktor yang disebutkan dalam survey tersebut antara lain: perasaan seksual yang tak menarik, kurangnya gairah seksual, keengganan terlihat dalam keadaan tanpa busana, kesulitan melakukan kegiatan seksual, menghindari rangsangan seksual, dan kurang menikmati aktivitas seksual.

Secara garis besar, orang-orang dalam studi ini kehilangan 13% berat badan mereka selama dua tahun, ungkap Binks. “Pada awal percobaan, baik pria maupun wanita yang berpartisipasi mengindikasikan kalau mereka mengalami kesulitan yang signifikan dalam segala wilayah terkait kualitas seksual dalam kehidupan,” ujar peneliti ini.

Para wanita, lebih banyak mengalami kesulitan dari pada kaum pria. “Bagi para wanita, tak ingin dilihat dalam keadaan tanpa busana dan tak dapat menikmati aktivitas seksual merupakan sebuah masalah yang menggangu,” ujar Binks.

Akan tetapi, kehidupan seksual, baik bagi pria maupun wanita jauh lebih baik saat mereka kehilangan beberapa kilo dari berat mereka. “Perbaikan kualitas kehidupan seksual terhubung langsung dengan kehilangan berat badan, dan sepertinya mereka mencapai tingkat maksimal saat mampu mengurangi berat badan sebesar 12%,” ungkap Binks.

67% dari wanita mengatakan, kalau mereka merasakan tak menarik secara seksual di awal studi. “Lazimnya turun hingga 26,4% dalam setahun dan tetap stabil,” ujar Binks. “Sedang yang tak diinginkan terlihat tanpa busana turun dari 62,7% hingga 34,3%,” tambahnya. Dan ada pengurangan serupa di area lainnya.

Sementara itu, ada perbaikan serupa pada kaum pria, ada beberapa pria dalam studi ini yang dapat membuat definisi kesimpulan yang sama. Bagi para pria, tidak menginginkan terlihat tanpa busana dan tak dapat menikmati hubungan seksual merupakan dua masalah penting, seperti halnya para wanita.

“10% kekurangan berat badan yang signifikan memperbaiki hampir sebagian besar masalah kesehatan. Nampaknya kualitas kehidupan seksual makin membaik seperti segala masalah terkait berat badan yang juga jadi lebih baik,” ujar Binks.

Psikologi Hubungan Seksual

April 28, 2008 Leave a comment

Menurut Sternberg, cinta adalah sebuah kisah, kisah yang ditulis oleh setiap orang. Kisah tersebut merefleksikan kepribadian, minat dan perasaan seseorang terhadap suatu hubungan. Ada kisah tentang perang memperebutkan kekuasaan, misteri, permainan dan sebagainya. Kisah pada setiap orang berasal dari “skenario” yang sudah dikenalnya, apakah dari orang tua, pengalaman, cerita dan sebagainya. Kisah ini biasanya mempengaruhi orang bagaimana ia bersikap dan bertindak dalam sebuah hubungan.

Sternberg terkenal dengan teorinya tentang segitiga cinta . Segitiga cinta itu mengandung komponen: (1) keintiman (intimacy), (2)  gairah (passion) dan (3) komitmen.

Keintiman adalah elemen emosi, yang di dalamnya terdapat kehangatan, kepercayaan (trust) dan keinginan untuk membina hubungan.

Ciri-cirinya antara lain seseorang akan merasa dekat dengan seseorang, senang bercakap-cakap dengannya sampai waktu yang lama, merasa rindu bila lama tidak bertemu, dan ada keinginan untuk bergandengan tangan atau saling merangkul bahu.

Gairah adalah elemen motivasional yang didasari oleh dorongan dari dalam diri yang bersifat seksual.

Komitmen adalah elemen kognitif, berupa keputusan untuk secara sinambung dan tetap menjalankan suatu kehidupan bersama. Menurut Strenberg, setiap komponen itu pada setiap orang berbeda derajatnya. Ada yang hanya tinggi di gairah, tapi rendah pada  komitmen . Sedangkan cinta yang ideal adalah apabila ketiga komponen itu berada dalam proporsi yang sesuai pada suatu waktu  tertentu. Misalnya pada tahap awal hubungan, yang paling besar adalah komponen keintiman. Setelah keintiman berlanjut pada gairah  yang lebih besar, (dalam beberapa budaya) disertai dengan komitmen yang lebih besar. Misalnya melalui perkawinan.

Pada budaya tertentu, komitmen dianggap sebagai kekutan utama dalam perkawinan. Karena itu banyak perkawinan (dalam budaya  tersebut) yang hanya dilandasi oleh komitmen masing-masing pihak pada lembaga perkawinan itu sendiri. Perkawinan dipandang sebagai  keharusan budaya dan agama untuk melanjutkan keturunan, atau karena usia, atau untuk meningkatkan status, atau sebab-sebab lain.

Perkawinan seperti ini akan terasa kering karena baik suami maupun istri hanya menjalankan kewajibannya saja. Variasi lain, perkawinan hanya dianggap sebagai lembaga yang mensahkan hubungan seksual. Perkawinan semacam ini kehilangan sifat  persahabatannya, yang ditandai dengan tidak adanya kemesraan suami istri, seperti makan bersama, berbincang-bincang, saling  berpelukan dan sebagainya.

Memamng kenyataannya sebuah hubungan seksual dalam sebuah lembaga perkawaninan kadang kala hanya menjadi rutinitas karena basis  perkawinan telah bergeser dari cinta menjadi beban melaksanakan kewajiban. Lain halnya jika sebuah pasangan tetap menjadikan cinta sebagai landasan berumah tangga, maka unsur gairah merupakan salah satu tujuan dari pencapaian hubungan seksual.

Stuart Brody, seorang psikologis dari Universitas Paisley menyatakan bahwa bercinta bisa membantu mengurangi stres yang berlebihan.   Dalam laporan yang ditulis majalah New Scientist menyebutkan hanya hubungan seksual yang ‘sebenarnya’ (penetrative intercourse)  yang bisa membantu meredakan rasa tegang, sementara untuk hubungan seksual lainnya tak akan memberi efek apapaun pada tingkat  stres.

Dalam hal ini Professor Brody memonitor beragam efek seks pada tingkat tekanan darah dan pengaruhnya pada situasi stres. Pada riset ini Brody meminta 24 wanita dan 22 pria mencatat seberapa sering mereka berhubungan dalam beragam gaya seks. Kemudian  mereka diminta untuk menjalani tingkat stress mereka meliputi public speaking dan mental arithmetic secara manual.

Para responden yang melakukan penetrasi dalam hubungan seksual mereka menunjukkan penurunan  tekanan darah mereka kearah normal  lebih cepat dibanding responden yang melakukan aktivitas seks lainnya seperti masturbasi.

Sementara untuk peserta yang tak melakukan aktivitas seksual apapun mengalami lonjakan tekanan darah ke tingkat stres. Meskipun dalam hal ini Dr Brody juga menyebutkan faktor kesehatan dan kepribadian juga turut berperan pada tingkat stres seseorang.

Professor Brody mengatakan kemungkinan efek menenangkan terkait dengan rangsangan dari beragam syaraf yang terjadi selama berhubungan seksual, namun tidak termasuk seks dalam bentuk lain. Dalam hal ini syaraf vagal memainkan peranan penting dalam proses psikologi dan pelepasan hormon oxytocin yang keluar selama   berhubungan seks juga memiliki efek menenangkan.

Prof Brody mengatakan bahwa sangatlah masuk akal dalam istilah evolutionary untuk standar hubungan seks heteroseksual yang  diasosiasikan dengan efek-efek positif yang sangat luas pada tingkah laku seseorang.

Dia menambahkan riset mengenai pertumbuhan badan yang dikhususkan pada ‘hubungan badan’, dan bukan perilaku seksual lainnya, baik sendiri maupun dengan partner, berkaitan dengan manfaat-manfaat  psikologis maupun fisiologis yang lebih luas. Semakin banyak   frekuensi hubungan, semakin banyak manfaat yang didapat.

Anatomi Organ Genital Wanita

April 27, 2008 17 comments

Organ Dalam

Organ Luar

1. Clitoris
2. Labia majora
3. Hymen
4.
Perineum
5. Hood of the clitoris (juga disebut prepuce)
6. Labia minora
7. Urethral orifice – or urethral opening
8. Opening of the vagina

Fisiologi Ereksi

April 27, 2008 Leave a comment

Ereksi terjadi saat katup darah pada pangkal penis terbuka dan meyebabkan darah mengalir kedalam penis.  Darah mengalir memenuhi corpus cavernosum and corpus spongiosum yang berongga (lihat bagian anatomi penis). Setelah seluruh bagian penis terisi darah (kecuali ureter) maka terjadi ereksi. Ereksi terjadi sebagai hasil dari sistem syaraf parasympathetic yang bekerja ketika pria dewasa mendapatkan rangsangan. Akan tetapi pada anak-anak ereksi terjadi pada saat tidur dikenal dengan istilah nocturnal penile tumescence yang terjadi pada saat tidur REM (Rapid Eye Movement) dan biasanya terjadi 100 menit semalam.

Anatomi Genital Pria

April 27, 2008 1 comment

Alat genital pria terdiri dari bagian eksternal dan bagian internal. Bagian eksternal terdiri dari penis, skrotum dan rambut pubic. Bagian dalam terdiri dari terdiri dari berbagai organ dan saluran yang berfungsi untuk memproduksi dan menyalurkan sperma, yang meliputi epididymis (e), vas diferens (vas) dan prostat (pr). Bagian lain yang nampak pada gambar adalah tulang pubic (PU), ureter (u) dan testis (T).

Aspek yang sering dipermasalahkan pada organ reproduksi adalah penis. Penis terdiri dari tangkai dan kepala penis. Dibawah kulit penis (seperti nampak pada gambar berikut) terdapat tiga bagian yaitu corpus cavernosum, corpus spongisum dan ureter. Penis diikat pada tulang pelvic oleh dua ikatan otot fibrous yang disebut dengan root (R).

Ujung atau kepala penis biasa disebut glens adalah bagian yang paling sensitif pada tubuh pria karena banyak terdapat ujung-ujung syaraf. Kecuali jika disunat, glans tertutup oleh kulit yang disebut foreskin (f) atau prepuce. Kulit ini dapat disingkap sehingga Glan dapat terlihat.

Persalinan Kala II

April 27, 2008 16 comments

Tanda dan Gejala Kala II Persalinan

1) Ibu ingin meneran bersamaan dg kontraksi

2) Ibu merasakan peningkatan tekanan pd rektrum/vaginal

3) Perineum terlihat menonjol

4) Vulva vagina dan sfinger membuka

5) Peningkatan pengeluaran lendir & darah

Penatalaksanaan Fisiologis Kala Dua Persalinan

Berikut ini adalah alur untuk penatalaksanaan kala dua persalinan :

Gambar 1. Penatalaksanaan kala 2 persalinan

1) Mulai Mengejan

Jika sudah didapatkan tanda pasti kala dua tunggu ibu sampai merasakan adanya dorongan spontan untuk meneran. Meneruskan pemantauan ibu dan bayi.

2) Memantau selama penataksanaan kala dua persalinan

Melanjutkan penilaian kondisi ibu dan janin serta kemajuan persalinan selama kala dua persalinan secara berkala. Memeriksa dan mencatat nadi ibu setiap 30 menit, frekuensi dan lama kontraksi selama 30 menit, denyut jantung janin setiap selesai meneran, penurunan kepala bayi melalui pemeriksaan abdomen, warna cairan ketuban, apakah ada presentasi majemuk, putaran paksi luar, adanya kehamilan kembar dan semua pemeriksaan dan intervensi yang dilakukan pada catatan persalinan.

3) Posisi Ibu saat Meneran

Membantu ibu untuk memperoleh posisi yang paling nyaman baginya. Ibu dapat berganti posisi secara teratur selama kala dua persalinan karena hal ini sering kali mempercepat kemajuan persalinan.

Gambar 2. Posisi duduk atau setengah duduk

Gambar 3. Jongkok atau Berdiri

Gambar 4. Merangkak atau berbaring miring ke kiri

4) Melahirkan kepala

Bimbing ibu u/ meneran. Saat kepala janin terlihat pada vulva dengan diameter 5 – 6 cm, memasang handuk bersih untuk mengeringkan janin pada perut ibu. Saat sub occiput tampak dibawah simfisis, tangan kanan melindungi perineum dengan dialas lipatan kain dibawah bokong ibu, sementara tangan kiri menahan puncat kepala agar tidak terjadi defleksi yang terlalu cepat saat kepala lahir, Mengusapkan kasa/kain bersih untuk membersihkan muka janin dari lendir dan darah.

Gambar 5. Melahirkan Kepala

5) Memeriksa Tali Pusat

Setelah kepala bayi lahir, minta ibu untuk berhenti meneran dan bernapas cepat. Raba leher bayi, apakah ada leletan tali pusat. Jika ada lilitan longgar lepaskan melewati kepala bayi.

Gambar 6. Memeriksa tali pusat

6) Melahirkan Bahu

Setelah menyeka mulut dan hidung bayi hingga bersih dan memeriksa tali pusat, tunggu hingga terjadi kontraksi berikutnya dan awasi rotasi spontan kepala bayi. Setelah rotasi eksternal, letakan satu tangan pada setiap sisi kepala bayi dan beritahukan pada ibu untuk meneran pada kontraksi berikutnya. Lakukan tarikan perlahan kearah bawah dan luar secara lembut (Kearah tulang punggung ibu hingga bahu bawah tampak dibawah arkus pubis. Angkat kepala bayi kearah atas dan luar (mengarah ke langit-langit) untuk melahirkan bahu posterior bayi.

Gambar 7. Melahirkan Bahu

7) Melahirkan Sisa Tubuh Bayi

Setelah bahu lahir, tangan kanan menyangga kepala, leher dan bahu janin bagian posterior dengan ibu jari pada leher (bagian bawah kepala) dan keempat jari pada bahu dan dada/punggung janin, sementara tangan kiri memegang lengan dan bahu janin bagian anterior saat badan dan lengan lahir

Setelah badan dan lengan lahir, tangan kiri menyusuri punggung kearah bokong dan tungkai bawah janin untuk memegang tungkai bawah (selipkan ari telinjuk tangan kiri diantara kedua lutut janin)

Setelah seluruh badan bayi lahir pegang bayi bertumpu pada lengan kanan sedemikian rupa hingga bayi menghadap kearah penolong. Nilai bayi, kemudian letakan bayi diatas perut ibu dengan posisi kepala lebih rendah dari badan (bila tali pusat terlalu pendek, letakan bayi di tempat yang memungkinkan.

Gambar 8. Melahirkan Tubuh Bayi

8) Memotong tali pusat

Segera mengeringkan bayi, membungkus kepala dan badan bayi kecuali tali pusat. Menjepit tali pusat menggunakan klem kira-kira 3 cm dari umbilikus bayi. Melakukan urutan pada tali pusat kearah ibu dan memasang klem kedua 2 cm dari klem pertama. Memegang tali pusat diantara 2 klem menggunakan tangan kiri, dengan perlindungan jari tangan kiri, memotong tali pusat diantara kedua klem.

Gambar 9. Memotong Tali Pusat

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