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Architectural Viewpoint Summary

The following summarizes the architectural viewpoints described in later  chapters. These viewpoints are built by applying the various UML diagram  types to specific architecture development tasks. Each viewpoint has specific  modeling goals and stakeholders. Additionally, we have used the IEEE 1471  framework to describe the rationale for each of the viewpoints. These descriptions  should assist those attempting to apply these viewpoints. Appendix A  provides a detailed summary of these viewpoints.
The viewpoints in Table 1.1 provide a set of highly abstracted software  descriptions. The ContextView provides a summary of the system boundary and  the external entities that interact with the system. The analysis views provide an  abstract set of entities focusedonmodelingtheproblemrather than the solution.

Table 1.1 Conceptual and analysis viewpoint summary
Viewpoint                     UML diagram        type
Analysis Focused          Class                   Describe system entities in  response to a scenario. Often
referred to as a view of  participating classes or VOPC.
Analysis Interaction     Interaction            Interaction diagram between  objects for analysis.
Analysis Overall           Class                    Combination of all classes  from all focused analysis  viewpoints.
Context Use                Case                      Show the external system actors and the system under design.

Table 1.2 describes a set of viewpoints targeted at describing the software  design. The Component, Component Interaction, and Component State Views  provide a mapping of the logical runtime structures, their functionality, and their  intercommunications.The Subsystem Interface Dependency View provides a visualization of subsystem dependencies and interfaces. The Layered Subsystem  View provides a highly abstracted view of all the subsystems. Finally, the Logical  DataView provides a description of data models shared between components.

Table 1.2 Logical design viewpoints

Viewpoint UML  diagram                type              Description
Component                                 Component        Illustrate component  communications.
Interaction                                  Interaction         Interactions among components.

Component State                        State/Activity    State transition/activity diagram for a component or for a     set of components.
Layered                                      Subsystem          Package Illustrate layering and subsystems  design.
Logical Data                              Class                  Show critical data views used for  integration.
Subsystem Interface
Dependency                               Class                  Illustrate subsystem dependencies  and interfaces.

The final set of viewpoints (Table 1.3) is focused on the environment and  physical aspects of the software, such as database deployment, that can impact  architectural qualities of the system. The Deployment View shows the mapping  of hardware and software for distributed systems. The Physical Database  View illustrates the physical deployment structures of databases. The Process  View shows the execution threads of the system and often the mapping to  components. The Process State View shows the dynamic states for a process.

Table 1.3 Environment/Physical viewpoint summary
Viewpoint UML diagram           type                      Description
Deployment                             Deployment         Mapping of software to hardware for  distributed systems.
Physical Data                           Deployment         Physical view of a particular database.
Process                                    Deployment         Show the processes of a particular  system instance.
Process State                           State                    Show the dynamic states of a process.

Often, overall views of large software systems become overwhelming.  An overall view usually requires architecture-size paper to print, which  necessarily limits distribution and use. As a result, we sometimes describe a  single viewpoint that covers both a ‘focused’ and ‘overall’ variation of a view.  In these cases, a series of focused views is often developed as the basis for an  overall view. However, if the stakeholders and intent of the focused and  overall perspectives are different a new viewpoint is created. The idea of  focusing a view is critical to enabling development of large systems. In  Chapter 5, in the discussion of managing model complexity, we describe the  focusing principles that underlie the derivation of many of these   viewpoints.  Specific projects might create other viewpoints using these principles.

Frequently several views will be used together. For example, in the design of  components and interfaces it is common to create a Component View, a  Component Interaction View, and a Component State View. A series of  interaction views is then used to elaborate the details of the Component View  and validate the component structure. The state view describes the overall  dynamics of a collection of components without showing the details of the  sequencing of operations.

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